“中国妇女的现状”图片展                 

 “CURRENT SITUATION OF CHINESE WOMEN” PHOTO EXHIBITION                 

A、前言FORWORD

几千年的封建社会和几百年的半殖民地半封建社会,是中国妇女长期受压迫、受屈辱、受摧残的悲惨历史。

The Feudalistic society for the last several thousand years and the semi-colonial and semi-feudal society for the last several hundred years witness the miserable life of Chinese women being oppressed, humiliated and devastated for a long period of time.   

新中国的成立,标志着中国妇女得到了历史性的解放。改革开放以后,中国妇女更以主人翁的姿态积极地投身于国家的建设和发展,成为了中国改革开放和现代化建设的生力军。她们在工农业生产、科学、文化、教育、卫生等各项事业中做出了极其重要的贡献,是创造物质文明和精神文明的伟大力量。

The founding of the new China marks the historical emancipation of Chinese women. Ever since China’s reform and opening-up policy, Chinese women have played a more positively role in China’s social construction and development as masters of the nation. They have become the new force in China’s reform and opening as well as its modernization construction. Being also a great force to foster material and spiritual civilization, they have made significant contributions to industrial and agricultural production, science, culture, education and health etc.     

“十二五”期间,中国政府将会大力推动新一轮中国妇女、儿童发展纲要颁布实施,依法维护妇女儿童权益,扎实做好惠及妇女儿童民生和发展的重点工作,积极推动解决妇女儿童最关心最直接最现实的利益问题。

During the Twelfth Five Years Plan, the Chinese government will strongly push to enact and implement the programs of action for the development of Women and Children, to protect the rights and interests of women and children in accordance to laws and regulations, to make benefiting the livelihood and development of women and children our work focus, and to actively resolve any realistic issues that are most directly concerning the interests of women and children and any issues that they care most.       

21世纪,中国妇女已经成为世界妇女在全球经济和社会发展的重要组成部分,正在对国际社会的进步发挥着越来越重要的作用。

In the 21st century, Chinese women are becoming an important and integral part of international women in the world’s economy and social development and are playing a more and more important role in the international social progress.  

 

 

1.解放前中国妇女的状况(1949年以前)  

Situation of Chinese Women before New China (Before 1949)  

解放前,大部分中国妇女长期被压迫在社会的最底层,她们政治上无权,经济上依附,社会上无地位,婚姻上不自主。帝国主义、封建势力和官僚资本主义相勾结对中国人民进行残酷的压迫和剥削,把中国推向了亡国灭族的边缘,也把中国妇女推向了前所未有的苦难深渊。在这漫长的历史进程中,虽然也有进步女性脱颖而出,为妇女运动做出了贡献,但她们始终无力与历史洪流相左,不能改变中国妇女的悲惨命运这一客观事实。

Before the New China, most Chinese women were oppressed at the lowest bottom of the society. They have no political rights, economically dependent on men. They did not have footing in the society and did not have freedom of choice in their own marriages. Under the cruel oppression and exploitation of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, China was plunged to the edge of national subjugation and genocide. Chinese women were also plunged to the unprecedented sufferings. During this prolonged historical course, there were nevertheless some women stood out to make contributions to the women emancipation. However they failed to resist the historical trend and failed to change the miserable fate for Chinese women.  

在旧中国,占农村人口70%的贫雇农只占有10%的土地,而妇女则根本没有土地所有权。婚姻和家庭方面, 95%以上都是包办买卖婚姻。

In the old China, 70% peasants in the country only had 10% ownership of land, while women had no land ownership at all. In their marriage and family matters, 95% of the women ended up in arranged marriages or mercenary marriage.    点击下载更多照片 DOWNLOAD MORE PHOTOS (BEFORE 1949

 

 

2.新中国建立后的中国妇女状况(1949-1978)  

Situation of Chinese Women after the Establishment of New China(1949-1978)  

从本世纪上半叶起,广大妇女为了民族和自身的解放,经过几十年不屈不挠的英勇奋斗,直到中华人民共和国成立,占全世界妇女四分之一的中国妇女终于获得了举世瞩目的历史性解放。新中国宣告了中国妇女在政治、经济、文化、社会和家庭生活等各方面均享有与男子平等的权利,她们和全体中国公民一样成为国家与社会的主人。

Since the first half of last century, in order to gain national and personal emancipation, lot of women fought heroically and unbendingly for several decades until the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. By then Chinese women, being one quarter of all the women in the world, finally obtained the historical emancipation which attracted the world’s attention. The New China declared that all Chinese women have equal rights and footing with all men in terms of political, economic, cultural and social status as well as in family life. They also became masters of the country and the society like all Chinese citizens.       

从新中国建立的1949年到1958年,共有1600万妇女摆脱了文盲状态;在解放前,中国妇女的文盲比例则高达90%。同时,中国妇女的劳动方式也有了转变。1957年,全国有70%的农村妇女参加了农业生产,而城市女职工达到了328.6万人,与1949年相比,增加了4.5倍。在国家事务与社会管理方面,中国妇女也日渐扮演越来越重要的角色,中国人民政治协商会议第一届全体会议在北京召开,占全体代表10.4%的69名妇女出席了会议。

Since the establishment of New China from 1949 to 1958, 16 million women transformed from illiteracy to literacy. Before New China, illiteracy rate for Chinese women was as high as 90%. At the same time, the working style of Chinese women also changed. In 1957, 70% women national wide in the country participated agricultural production, and there were 3.286 million working women in cities. Compared with 1949, rate of working women increased 4.5 times. In national affairs and social management, women gradually played more and more important roles. In the first plenary session of the Chinese People Political Consultative Conference,10.4% of the national representatives were women and there were 69 women participated this conference session.点击下载更多照片 DOWNLOAD MORE PHOTOS (1949-1978)

 

 

3.改革开放后的中国妇女状况 (1978—今) 

The Situation of Chinese Women Since Reform and Opening-up(1978 – present) 

改革开放以来,中国妇女在“平等、发展、和平”的方向上取得了历史性的伟大进步。在推动社会发展的同时,中国妇女的精神面貌发生了重大变化,她们自尊、自信、自立、自强,在参政能力、文化水平、科学知识、生产技能等各方面都有了长足的进步。这是世界妇女事业进步的重要组成部分,也是中国人权进步的重要组成部分。 今天,中国妇女已享有中国社会几千年来从未达到、许多发达国家历时数百年方才得到承认的平等权利。

Since the policy of reform and opening up in 1978, Chinese women made historically great progresses in terms of equality, development and peace. While promoting social development, Chinese women made great changes in their mental status. They have shown their self-esteem, confidence, independence and strong ability. They made great progresses in their ability of participating in politics, education level, scientific knowledge and production techniques. This is the integral part of the progress in women’s achievements in the whole world, as well as an integral part of the progress in Chinese human right. Today, Chinese women enjoy the recognized equal rights which China could never achieve in the last thousands of years. Such recognized equal rights may take many developed countries several hundred years to achieve it.

在参与国家事务和社会管理方面,中国全国人大女代表的比例为22%,美国女性立法者的比例也才仅有17%。目前省、地、县政府领导班子中,女干部配备率已由2000年的64.5%、65.1%、59.8%分别提高到2010年的87.1%、89.4%、86.2%,中国妇女在政治参与方面取得明显进步。2011年全国各地招录公务员,女性占42%。教育方面,2010年来中国女性人才的数量有了显著提高,女大学生比例达到49%以上。女性的经济能力也在逐年增强,据悉目前北京女性购房比已经达到47%。

In participating in the national affairs and social management, 22% of the representatives in National People’s Congress were women. Compared with the American National Constitution and Laws, there are only 17% of American women. Currently, in the leadership of provincial, municipal and local governments, allocation of women leadership increased to 87.1%, 89.4% and 86.2 respectively in 2010 from 64.5%, 65.1% and 59.8% in 2000.  Chinese women have made significant progress in political participation. In the recruitment for national public services in 2011, 42% were women. In education, personnel number for women has greatly increased since 2010. Up to 49% of university undergraduates are girls. Women’s financial status has also gradually increased. It is reported 47% Beijing women have bought houses for themselves. 点击下载更多照片 DOWNLOAD MORE PHOTOS(1978-PRESENT)